SharePoint 2010 is a combination of range of products like foundation, standard, enterprise editions, project server, FAST search server for SharePoint 2010.
All these products have their own databases which are categorized as below:
|Product version and edition||Databases|
|SharePoint Foundation 2010||Configuration|
Central Administration content
Content (one or more)
Usage and Health Data Collection
Business Data Connectivity
Application Registry service (if upgrading from Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 Business Data Catalog)
Subscription Settings service (if it is enabled through Windows PowerShell)
|Additional databases for SharePoint Server 2010 Standard edition||Search service application:|
Word Automation services
|Additional databases for SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise edition||PerformancePoint|
|Additional databases for Project Server 2010||Draft|
|Additional database for FAST Search Server||Search administration|
For details, go to this link.